1786 – Jacques Balmat and Dr. Michel Paccard are the first men to climb Mont Blanc.
1940 – The Battle of Britain begins when the Luftwaffe attacks Britain for the first time.
1549 – War declared between England and France over the ownership of Boulogne, England’s last possession in France.
1814 – The Treaty of Fort Jackson gives the US government 23 million acres of Creek territory.
1520 – The Vasa, a Swedish warship, now an important window into 16th-century shipbuilding techniques and naval history, sinks in Stockholm harbor 1,400 yards into her maiden voyage.
1753 – Edmund Jennings Randolph, Governor of Virginia and the first US Attorney General, is born.
1492 – Roderic Borgia, the most controversial Pope of the Rennaissance, becomes Pope Alexander VI.
1862 – President Lincoln appoints Gen. Henry Halleck to the position of General In Chief of the Union Army.
30 BC – Cleopatra commits suicide.
1781 – Robert Mills, the architect of the US Treasury Building and the Washington Monument, is born.